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- E51 - Solutions for irrigating kitchen-gardens and community market-garden produce
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Further details Mainly technical trainings on pasture management as well as legal how to apply and register pasture land for the use by the PUU. For example the PUU in Muminabad district received a much higher share of agricultural machinery from an IFAD project than other districts in the project area, as the PUU guaranteed a collective ownership, which is more efficient than a single ownership for an agricultural machinery. Subsidies for specific inputs including labour Labour by land users was voluntary food-for-work paid in cash rewarded with other material support Other incentives or instruments Policies and regulations to provide incentives to create PUUs.
Did the Approach enable evidence-based decision-making? Watershed maps were used as powerful visual tools to identify pastures and rotational grazing schemes. Working together as a legally recognised union empowers people and helps to share the work that otherwise is assumed by livestock owners alone.
Did the Approach improve coordination and cost-effective implementation of SLM? The PUU as a juridical entity has access to different services and benefits e.
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Did the Approach improve knowledge and capacities of land users to implement SLM? Trainings was provided to the stakeholders. There is a regular exchange forum between state and PUU at provincial and national level. Did the Approach mitigate conflicts?
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Did the Approach improve gender equality and empower women and girls? The PUU is the key to fulfilling the rights of communal pasture land certified by the state. For animals on pastures. Did the Approach lead to employment, income opportunities? Jobs as herdsmen are created and substantial increases in income are generated by healthier animals more milk, more meat. Sustainability of Approach activities Can the land users sustain what had been implemented through the Approach without external support?
Social and economic benefits in being organised as a PUU clearly over-weigh negative aspects like spending time in meetings. This provides a low value for livestock production to farmers. Improve food processing standards in the local market. Type and level of DRR measures. Organising the actors involved in water resources is crucial, and there are several economic, environmental and community challenges. This implies, apart from sound management, the implementation of various technical measures. The majority of water resources in Haiti are subject to bacterial contamination, which endangers.
The infrastructure for the abstraction and conveyance of water is periodically put to the test by the large variation of discharge, from floods to periods of low flow. The protection of water resources aims, simultaneously, to strengthen local actors in their management capacity. The objective is to protect water resources at the local level according to rules which are established and accepted by the various actors.
These rules span legal, socio-cultural and biophysical dimensions. Effective protection of water resources also means that technical measures are implemented to conserve and protect catchments, in order to ensure the quality and quantity of water and the recharge of groundwater bodies. These measures are defined for different zones.
Three categories of zones are established each with its specific restrictions and recommendations. They are covered in a municipal decree which is published by the town councils.
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A first zone of m2 directly upstream of the water source is brought under the jurisdiction of the state, then fenced, reforested and completely protected from human activities. In a second zone covering a minimum of 5 ha upstream of the source, restrictions to the use of the terrain apply, notably with regard to defecation, free-range livestock farming and other harmful human activities, in order to protect the soil - and thus water quality.
The land is managed so as to guarantee good conservation of the soil by reforestation with different varieties of fruit trees and softwood lumber. A third zone can be established if supported by the community, with restrictions on burning and free-range grazing, as well as other methods of preserving the soil and managing the vegetative cover. This latter zone can cover the whole catchment, and is meant to promote groundwater recharge.
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The restoration of the catchment by the delimitation of the zones and the implementation of SLM technologies includes different techniques such as vegetative barriers and stone walls. The restrictions on the use of zone two see above do not necessarily conflict with the interests of the producers. For example rainfed crops are unreliable due to the climate and forestry is a better alternative. Therefore people perceive the reforestation of their land as development of their heritage, and as a profitable investment for the long term.
In the first two years, a total maximum grant of USD per ha are paid to the producers in tranches, depending on the sustained performance of their conservation activities. These experiences have led to the establishment of national standards on the protection of drinking water sources.
Livestock density: n. Prohibition on housing, livestock farming, chemical fertilization, latrines, waste disposal, burning, etc. Zone 3: all areas in the catchment upstream of zone 2, depending on agreements with the land owners and farmers, oriented towards agroforestry and protected by Sustainable Land Management measures. The maintenance operations depend on the climatic conditions in particular heavy rainfall and on the type and quantity of structural measures.
E51 - Solutions for irrigating kitchen-gardens and community market-garden produce
The topography and geomorphology influence the stability of the structures and hence the maintenance. The maintenance costs are met by the farmers, or in certain cases by the committee responsible for the provision of drinking water. The control on the restrictions of use of the protected zones is carried out by the local authorities together with the above committee. Hence, the costs are distributed over the community funds and the water services. Elaboration of a municipal decree Other measures 3. Acquisition of zone 1 Other measures 4.
Fencing of zone 1 Structural 5. Development of the land plots in zones 1 and 2 Structural 6. Treatment of the gullies Structural. Labour Afforestation, gully correction, laying-out, fencing Equipment Construction material Plant material Seedlings lump sum for grass and bushes for slope stabilisation Construction material Cement, iron, PVC, piles Other. Structural; after the rainy seasons - twice per year 2.
Specifications on climate Average annual rainfall in mm: Very variable between the regions of the country from to mm and more. Land use rights open access unorganised communal organised leased individual Water use rights open access unorganised communal organised leased individual. Before SLM: No facility for water extraction. After SLM: Water extracted from protected source.
Pope John Paul I
Comment: Extraction and conveyance of water. Before SLM: Contamination by human activities. After SLM: Decreasing contamination according to the monitoring of behavior. Comment: Defecation in the open is practiced by half of the households in the rural areas. The restrictions on access of the protected zones must be accompanied by raising awareness on hygiene and by improving the availability of sanitation services. Comment: The zoning and bio-engineering measures improve the water quality, which diminishes problems related to fecal contamination etc.
Comment: The zoning and bio-engineering measures improve the water quality, which reduces problems related to water rights, considering that water is a limited resource and is often disputed.